Media Inquiries

Our Community Relations staff is available 24 hours a day to respond to media inquiries.  Contact Valerie Trammell, Community Relations Director, at 405-615-3851 or with questions or to schedule an interview.
(For marketing solicitations or other solicitations, please email our team.)
Donor concerns or questions? Please call our Customer Service team at 1-877-340-8777 or to schedule an appointment or to speak to a customer service representative. 

Alert: Emergency Blood Shortage, Donors Critically Needed

June 22, 2021 – A nationwide blood shortage has reached Arkansas, as blood donations have reached emergency low levels. The shortage has been worsened by consistently high hospital usage, leaving blood centers around the nation short of all blood types heading into the upcoming July 4th holiday period.

The local blood supply is currently at a 1-2 day supply, well below the usual 4-5 day threshold Arkansas Blood Institute feels secure having on hand.

“In the past month, we’ve seen a dramatic drop in blood donations, an alarming development when we were already facing chronic shortfalls,” said Dr. John Armitage, president and CEO of Arkansas Blood Institute. “The public is rightly enjoying the reawakening of social freedoms and a return to normalcy, but if celebrating this rebirth by giving blood does not immediately become a major part of people’s reopening activities, we are going to run out of blood for patients. Harm may well result for many of the sickest folks in our communities.”

Arkansas Blood Institute encourages all Arkansans, age 16 and older, to donate blood as soon as possible. To schedule an appointment to give blood, call 1-877-340-8777 or find a blood drive near you.

Center hours have been extended, due to the severity of the situation. Donor centers will be open June 22-28 as follows: Monday-Friday, 7:30 am – 6 pm; Saturday, 7:30 am – 4pm; Sunday 7:30 am – 2pm.

You can also stop by one of our donor centers in:
Fort Smith
Hot Springs
Little Rock
North Little Rock

Volunteer donors with Arkansas Blood Institute exclusively provide every drop of blood needed for patients in 40 hospitals, medical facilities and air ambulances statewide. One donation saves up to three lives. Arkansas Blood Institute depends on an average of 1,200 donors per day to meet the needs of patients in our state. These patients rely on blood to survive an emergency injury or illness, or for ongoing treatment for cancer and other life-threatening diseases and conditions.

While COVID-19 vaccination is not required of blood donors, those who have been vaccinated can donate immediately, assuming they are feeling well.

Arkansas Blood Institute is the local, non-profit blood supplier, supporting the inventory for patients in more than 40 hospitals, medical facilities, and air ambulances statewide. For more information, visit

*16-year-olds must weigh at least 125 pounds and provide signed parental permission; 17-year-olds must weigh at least 125 pounds; 18+ year olds must weigh at least 110 pounds. Photo ID required.


Changes to Donor Eligibility Requirements Allow More People to Give Blood

Arkansas Blood Institute is Calling on Donors of All Blood Types to Give

February 19 (LITTLE ROCK) – As winter weather and resulting blood drive cancelations severely impact the supply of life-saving blood, Arkansas Blood Institute is alerting potential donors that new eligibility rules allow more people to give the gift of life. Many veterans, healthcare workers and other civic minded individuals who were disqualified in the past are now cleared to donate again. 

    Due to the nationwide blood shortage in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) recently revised a number of eligibility requirements for volunteer blood donors:
  • Those who spent extended time in many European countries are now no longer deferred due to Mad Cow Disease risks. This change will likely allow many veterans and military personnel to donate blood.
    Individuals in the following groups will remain deferred because of European residency:
  • Those who spent three months or more in the United Kingdom from 1980-1996
  • Those who spent five years or more in France or Ireland from 1980-2001
    The following now only have a three-month deferral period (these were previously 12- month deferrals):
  • Tattoos, ear piercings, and body piercings from unlicensed or unlisted facilities
  • Blood transfusions
  • Accidental needle stick or splash for health care workers
  • Travel to malarial-endemic areas

Additionally, many donors are unsure if they can donate with some common health conditions. Diabetes, high blood pressure or thyroid disease are often not obstacles to giving blood. Donors who have received the COVID-19 vaccine (Moderna or Pfizer) face no waiting time before giving blood or platelets.

Arkansas Blood Institute has set up a hotline for donors who are unsure of their eligibility. Donors are asked to call 405-419-1538 with questions about their eligibility. Answers to frequently asked questions are listed at

“We’re excited to see the FDA use the latest scientific data to adjust deferral criteria, allowing us to welcome back many donors,” said John Armitage, M.D., president and CEO of Arkansas Blood Institute. “Many donors who have previously been unable to give are now able to support the community blood supply that patients so desperately count on to recover from trauma, fight cancer, undergo surgery or battle life-threatening diseases.”

Arkansas Blood Institute is urging healthy adults age 16 or older of all blood types to give as soon as possible if they can safely visit a convenient donor center or mobile blood drive. Appointments to donate blood can be made at a donor center near you, finding a nearby blood drive, or by calling 877-340-8777. Walk-ins are welcome.

COVID-19 Vaccines Create Eligibility Confusion for Blood Donors

January 31, 2021 (LITTLE ROCK) – While recent vaccinations have brought hope to many, they’ve also brought confusion from donors about how receiving the COVID vaccine affects blood donation eligibility.

Individuals who receive the most common COVID-19 vaccines – Pfizer and Moderna – are eligible to donate blood and platelets with no waiting time.

Vaccine-related confusion – in conjunction with higher hospital usage due to COVID-19 patients – has created an ongoing need for blood and platelet donations. Now nearly a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, Arkansas Blood Institute is issuing a renewed call for blood and platelet donors.

“The health of our donors is an integral part of our life-saving mission,” said Dr. John Armitage, president and CEO of Arkansas Blood Institute. “As more Arkansans are vaccinated, it is important for them to know they’re eligible to give blood and platelets, even the same day they receive their vaccination. As the pandemic persists, the impact on the community blood supply continues as well—so we urge healthy adults, age sixteen and up, to make blood donation a priority.”

The need for blood and platelets has risen sharply, as hospital demand for blood increases. Patients undergoing cancer treatments, those suffering trauma, or those battling chronic blood diseases all rely on blood. In fact, every two seconds, someone needs blood that can only be provided by a volunteer blood donor. COVID-19 patients not only receive convalescent plasma, but many also receive additional blood and platelet transfusions.

Currently, convalescent plasma donors—those who have recovered from COVID-19 and donate plasma for critically ill COVID-19 patients—are not eligible to donate convalescent plasma after receiving the vaccine. However, they can still donate critically needed blood or platelets.

“We will see an update to the eligibility of convalescent plasma donors who have received the vaccine, in a matter of weeks,” Armitage said. “We are in the process of implementing brand new guidance from the FDA.”

As part of the nation’s 6th largest non-profit blood collector, Arkansas Blood Institute’s donors provide every drop of blood needed for patients in 40 hospitals. It takes nearly 1,200 donors a day to meet those needs.

Appointments to give blood are not required but can be made by calling Arkansas Blood Institute at 877-340-8777 or visiting Those who have recovered from COVID-19, have not received a COVID vaccine, and who are 14 days symptom free, may be eligible to donate convalescent plasma. Appointments to donate convalescent plasma can be made by calling 888-308-3924 or emailing


Arkansas Blood Institute is part of the 6th-largest independent blood center in the nation, providing lifesaving blood to 40 hospitals and medical facilities.

FDA Lifts Certain Travel-Related Deferrals for Blood Donors

The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) sets guidelines on who can donate blood in the United States, guidelines that are followed by all blood centers in the nation. In April 2020, these guidelines were adjusted, allowing many potential donors who had previously been deferred to give blood.

Malaria Risk

  • Travel to countries that carry a high malaria risk previously disqualified a donor for 12 months. This has been changed to a 3-month deferral.
  • If you’ve been been a resident of a high malaria risk country, however, you still remain deferred for 3 years.

Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)

    Military members were often deferred due to their residency in Europe. The guidance on this deferral has changed, and only if you meet one or more of the criteria below will you be deferred:
  • Blood transfusion in United Kingdom, France or Ireland, 1980-present
  • 3 months or more cumulative time spent in United Kingdom, 1980-1996
  • 5 years or more cumulative time spent in France or Ireland, 1980-2001
  • Residency at a US military base in Europe is no longer a deferral. Note: The U.K. comprises England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, Gibraltar and the Falkland Islands.

Questions about other eligibility requirements? Visit our Can I Donate page or give us a call at 877-340-8777.

Has your eligibility changed? Make a blood donation appointment today! Find a blood drive or donor center near you.

Why were these rules changed?

The FDA, which regulates blood donation, made the change based on new scientific studies and epidemiologic data. Thanks to this new information, the FDA concluded that the existing policies regarding certain donor eligibility criteria could be modified without compromising the safety of the blood supply.

Does this mean I’m at risk now, because people can give blood who couldn’t before?

No, the FDA concluded that changing existing policies regarding certain donor eligibility criteria would not compromise the safety of the blood supply.

What if I’m not sure if my time in Europe would make me ineligible to donate?

If you’re not sure if you spent enough time in the listed countries to donate, please call 877-340-8777.

COVID-19: Arkansas Blood Institute Urges Donations Amid Concerns

Blood donation can’t wait.

Blood donation is safe and critically important, despite concerns surrounding coronavirus (COVID-19). Arkansas Blood Institute is, as always, committed to safety for our donors, patients, and communities, and we urge you to keep your scheduled appointments and continue to donate blood.

The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) reports no cases of COVID-19 transmitted through blood transfusion, and respiratory viruses generally are not known to be transmitted by blood transfusion.

“We need people to start turning out in force to give blood,” said Peter Marks, M.D., Ph.D., director of the FDA.

Find a blood drive.

Arkansas Blood Institute is following safety recommendations set forth by the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Arkansas Blood Institute is committed to maintaining the safest standards for blood collection, testing and transfusion. Our donor centers and blood drives practice rigorous safety and cleanliness standards. As Arkansas Blood Institute monitors this rapidly developing situation, we will immediately inform the community about any changes in procedures or processes.

Arkansas Blood Institute’s donor centers and mobile blood drives have instituted additional cleaning methods, decontaminating work and common areas and equipment frequently. In addition, phlebotomy and donor services staff will wear masks and donor centers and mobile blood drives have been adapted to allow for social distancing.

We respectfully require donors to wear a mask in the donor area, as a courtesy to other donors and staff. If you don’t have a mask, please ask our staff and one will be provided for you. Thank you for your help in protecting others! All staff and donors will also have their temperatures taken before starting work or entering the facility. We are limiting the number of donors in the donor area, to allow for social distancing. If the donor area is full, please give us your cell phone number and we will call you when you’re ready to enter.

In an abundance of caution, we ask that donors refrain from giving blood if they have been diagnosed with or suspected of having COVID-19, unless it’s been 14 days since the complete resolution of symptoms; or if they’ve tested positive for COVID-19, but never developed symptoms, unless it’s been 14 days since the positive test.

Dr. Tuan Le, Chief Medical Officer of Arkansas Blood Institute, stresses:

  • Practice cough & sneeze etiquette
  • Stay home when sick
  • Clean hands often with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap and water for at least 20 seconds
  • Avoid touching your face after touching surfaces

As COVID-19 and resulting concerns continue to spread, additional challenges to the blood supply have occurred, including canceled and postponed blood drives. Arkansas Blood Institute depends on 1,200 donors per day to support the inventory needed for patients in more than 40 hospitals, medical facilities and air ambulances statewide and across the region.  

“Blood is a perishable product and we need constant donations not only to meet our community needs, but in case of local and national emergencies,” said John Armitage, M.D., president and CEO of Arkansas Blood Institute. “We urge healthy adults to continue their regular blood donations so the lifesaving supply can be maintained for our local patients who depend on blood products during treatment for cancer, traumatic injuries and other life-threatening conditions.”

“During routine blood donation screening, we ask donors if they are feeling well and healthy at the time of their donation,” said Dr. Le. “We always ask that donors who are not feeling well refrain from giving blood until they’re healthy.”

Blood donation typically takes only about an hour, and one donation saves up to three lives. Appointments can be made by calling 1-877-340-8777 or clicking here or visiting a donor center listed below:

Fort Smith
Hot Springs
Little Rock
North Little Rock

*To give blood, 16 year olds must weigh at least 125 pounds and provide signed parental permission; 17 year olds must weigh at least 125 pounds; 18+ year olds must weigh at least 110 pounds

We're committed to your safety. We've instituted additional cleaning efforts, using EPA-approved cleaning solutions in high-touch, high-traffic areas. We take the temperaturs of all staff and donors entering any donation area to ensure they don't have a fever. Donor centers and mobile blood drives have been adjusted to allow space for social distancing.

Follow Arkansas Blood Institute’s social media platforms for developments on the situation:


NEW QUESTION: Can I give blood if I've received a COVID vaccine?

  • If you received any mRNA vaccines (Pfizer or Moderna), you can donate blood, platelets or traditional plasma without any deferral period.
  • Recipients of any COVID-19 vaccines are NOT eligible to donate convalescent plasma at this time, according to current FDA guidance. (Please note: conversations are ongoing about this issue, so guidance could change.)
  • If you received an adenovirus vector vaccines (Oxford/AstraZeneca, etc), you can donate all blood products (except convalescent plasma) after a two-week deferral.
  • If you received a monoclonal antibodies (Regeneron or Eli Lilly), you are deferred for 12 months and not eligible to donate convalescent plasma.

What is COVID-19?

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus that originated in China in December 2019. The illness causes symptoms like fever, cough and shortness of breath, but can be severe in some at-risk populations.

How do I keep from getting COVID-19?

COVID-19 is generally thought to be spread from person-to-person through respiratory droplets like the common flu, so observing everyday preventative actions for respiratory diseases is critical: stay home if you’re sick, practice good sneeze/cough etiquette, wash your hands often with soap and water or an alcohol-based sanitizer, and regularly clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.

Will I be safe while donating blood?

Yes. Although we collect blood and blood products, we’re not a medical facility and ask only healthy donors to visit these locations to donate.

Is COVID-19 dangerous for blood donors?

No, the CDC has found no evidence that COVID-19 is spread through the blood or blood donations.

Can COVID-19 be transmitted through blood donation?

No, the CDC has found no evidence that COVID-19 can be transmitted either through a blood exposure or a blood donation. In similar respiratory illness outbreaks like SARS or MERS, no evidence of transmissions through blood products was seen.

Do you screen blood for COVID-19?

We don’t test for this illness, as the FDA has no approved screening test for blood donors and the illness is not shown to be transmitted through blood. Our testing laboratory is on the forefront of technology and conducts more than a dozen tests on each sample to ensure its safety. As a free service, we are testing blood for COVID-19 antibodies* for donors 18+ and will notify donors of their result. *This test has not been formally approved by the FDA and is not intended to establish a diagnosis or treatment of COVID-19.

Do you have safety procedures in place for your donor centers and blood drives?

Our operating procedures meet strict FDA regulations and OSHA standards to ensure workplace safety. We encourage all staff, volunteers and donors to take routine preventative actions – as recommended by the CDC – to help prevent the spread of acute respiratory illnesses, like the seasonal flu and COVID-19. We've added additional cleaning procedures, shifted our donation areas to allow for social distancing and are taking the temperatures of each donor and employee who enter our donor areas to ensure they’re feeling well. Our donor services and phlebotomy staff are required to wear masks. We respectfully require donors to wear a mask in the donor area, as a courtesy to other donors and staff. If you don't have a mask, please ask our staff and one will be provided for you. Thank you for your help in protecting others!

Should donors wait to donate blood because of COVID-19?

No, please donate blood or platelets as you’re able. Blood is a perishable product that requires continual donations to ensure a healthy supply.

What is the organization doing about COVID-19?

Your Blood Institute’s executive management and medical staff have been monitoring the rapidly changing situation of COVID-19 since the first reported case in December 2019. We have been using resources within our blood organization’s networks of BCA (Blood Centers of America), ABC (America’s Blood Centers), and AABB (formerly American Associations of Blood Banks). In addition, we have been monitoring situation reports from the CDC and WHO, along with updates from the state public health departments in Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas to track the local, regional, and national developments of COVID-19.

Who do I call if I have questions about the coronavirus or blood donation?

If you have questions about COVID-19 or the state’s response, please contact the Arkansas Department of Health by calling 800-803-7847, or for concerns involving children call 800-743-3616. If donors have questions about their planned blood donation, please contact our customer service line at 877-340-8777.

Has anything like this ever happened before? What were the results?

In the past, acute respiratory illness outbreaks like SARS (2002), H1N1 flu (2009), and MERS (2012) were contained due to prevention measures, public health interventions, medical detection, isolation and care of patients. In these outbreaks, no evidence was seen of blood transmission by the viruses. COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus, so research is ongoing into this virus’s specific transmission and effects in humans.

Are you observing social distancing?

Donor centers and mobile blood drives have been adjusted to allow space for social distancing. On bloodmobiles, staff are placing donors to allow for maximum distance between visitors. In addition, we strongly encourage appointments to be made to help us manage how many donors are present at one time. Donors can also wait in their vehicles after checking in with staff, if they prefer.

How are you making sure staff and donors are healthy?

As always, we ask only healthy staff and donors to come to our centers and mobile units. In addition, we screen all donor services staff at the beginning of their shift, taking temperatures to ensure no one has a fever or feels ill. All donors will also have their temperature taken before entering the blood donor area.

Should we be donating blood right now?

Yes! Donating blood is an essential health care activity and is critical to avoiding a blood supply crisis. For those wanting to help but don’t know where to start, donating blood is a safe and easy way to protect our communities in a time of need. As U.S. Surgeon General Dr. Jerome Adams said, “You can still go out and give blood. We’re worried about potential blood shortages in the future. Social distancing does not have to mean social disengagement.”

Arkansans Donate Convalescent Plasma to Help COVID-19 Patients Suffering Severe Symptoms

Arkansas Blood Institute (ABI) is recognizing donors who have given convalescent plasma as part of an experimental initiative to use the product to treat patients suffering severe symptoms of COVID-19.

By creating a registry of available patients, Arkansas Blood Institute can ensure local patients receive the donated products and have the best possible chance at fighting the illness.

David Mangan, 57, of Hot Springs spent about 40 minutes at Arkansas Blood Institute in Little Rock, donating plasma after he recovered from COVID-19.

Mangan contracted coronavirus after returning from a ski trip in Colorado. He had mild to moderate symptoms, but his wife’s were severe. Mangan found an opportunity to help others through a convalescent plasma donation, which was used for a patient suffering from severe symptoms of COVID-19.

“I may not ever know who gets it, or what the results are, but knowing that I’ve done my part feels like I’m doing something good,” said Mangan.

david mangan

ABI Collects Its First Units of Convalescent Plasma from Recovered COVID-19 Patients

April 9, 2020 (OKLAHOMA CITY) – Arkansas Blood Institute (ABI) has collected its first units of convalescent plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients, part of an experimental initiative to treat seriously ill patients.

In a rapid response to the Food and Drug Administration’s action to fast track the potential treatment, ABI created a registry to catalog available recovered COVID-19 patients to serve as possible donors. The registry – which has been live less than a week – has already seen more than 20 patients sign up, one of whom was the first to donate plasma units.

“At Arkansas Blood Institute, we’ve always pursued innovation and emerging opportunities to improve health and save lives,” said John Armitage, MD, president and CEO of Arkansas Blood Institute. “Today, that innovation has allowed us to bring hope to patients and their medical teams as they explore this new treatment option.”

After collection, the plasma units will be processed and tested for safety. Once cleared for patient use, they will be transfused to critically ill patients at local partner hospitals as part of the experimental initiative.

“Our team is honored to be pioneering a cutting-edge treatment that allows special patients who have fought off COVID to use plasma donations to power recovery for other patients,” Armitage said. “Generosity is a natural strength of our species and now we can use it directly to defeat this terrible virus.”

Arkansas Blood Institute Pioneers First-of-its-Kind Donor Recognition Program

LITTLE ROCK, Aug. 2, 2018 – Whether given or received, words of gratitude can be powerful.

To harness the power of a simple “thank you,” Arkansas Blood Institute has pioneered Thank-The-Donor™, the nation’s first web-enabled technology that connects blood recipients with their donors while complying with medical privacy laws.

With this patent-pending technology, patients can send a note, photo or video to their donor using a smartphone, tablet or computer. The groundbreaking program breaks communication barriers with a new and different way to share a “thank you” while protecting the anonymity of both donor and patient. 

“Few patients who receive donated blood ever know or have the opportunity to offer their gratitude with their blood donors,” said John Armitage, M.D. president and CEO of Arkansas Blood Institute.  “Thank-The-Donor™ conveniently facilitates uplifting connectedness between a blood donor and recipient.”

Baptist Health in Little Rock was one of the first hospitals to launch the program earlier this year.  Now, a green, heart-shaped tag is affixed to every blood bag from Arkansas Blood Institute, encouraging recipients or their families to visit

“Every three minutes in Arkansas an ill or injured patient requires a blood transfusion,” said Dr. Armitage. “Every drop of blood we provide comes from volunteer donations. Thousands of selfless Arkansans give this gift of life every year. While they don’t do it for the recognition, we hope this program will help show our donors just how special their donation is for the patient who receives it.”

Patients who receive blood products like red cells, plasma and platelets can use the Thank-The-Donor™ technology to express their appreciation to their donor.  Ben Evans needed blood from more than 40 donors during a life-threatening health crisis that left him hospitalized for 60 days.  He takes every opportunity he can to thank his blood donors for their priceless gift.

“Without those blood products, I wouldn’t have made it.  42 units of blood means a lot of people took an hour out of their day to help a complete stranger,” said Evans.  “I have had the opportunity to give blood twice since receiving it as my way of paying back those that gave me the chance at life—by ‘Paying it Forward’.”

Arkansas Blood Institute is part of the sixth largest nonprofit blood collector in the United States, serving more than 40 hospitals and medical facilities in Arkansas.

To learn more about Thank-The-Donor™, please go to


Global Blood Fund Receives $25,000 Donation to Fight Bleeding Deaths

April 30, 2018-  Global Blood Fund (GBF), a 501(c)(3) charity founded in 2008 with support from Arkansas Blood Institute received a generous $25,000 donation from Terumo BCT to combat the world transfusion crisis. 

Terumo BCT, a global leader in blood component, therapeutic apheresis and cellular technologies, is committed to advancing blood safety throughout the world.

The donated funds will be utilized for various projects to improve transfusion care in emergent nations.  Among its programs, GBF re-homes donated blood banking equipment, delivers and sponsors training programs, and supports efforts to reduce the stark inequalities in access to safe blood that exist between higher- and lower-income countries.

“We are very grateful to Terumo BCT for its leadership in supporting better transfusion care for the majority of people across the globe who cannot be assured that blood will be available for them when it is needed,” said John Armitage, M.D., CEO of Arkansas Blood Institute and Chair of GBF. “This gift will help fight the annual deaths of hundreds of thousands of women hemorrhaging during childbirth and young children under age five succumbing to malaria, injuries, other afflictions.”

Since its inception in 2008, GBF has supported transfusion-related initiatives in more than 40 countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia.  In 2017, the value of equipment donated approached $2 million and included multiple bloodmobiles sent to Africa and Mexico. Other recent endeavors include pan-African donor management workshops run in collaboration with the Africa Society for Blood Transfusion (AfSBT) and the opening of a rural blood bank in Laos.

“Terumo BCT and the Global Blood Fund share a commitment to serving patients by unlocking the potential of blood across the globe,” said Michael Lees, Terumo BCT, Vice President, Commercial, North America. “We are honored to support GBF’s work serving those patients most in need, in parts of the world that are still developing their blood transfusion capabilities across Africa, Latin America and Asia. Terumo BCT is proud to support GBF’s work to directly improve patient’s access to safe blood around the world.”

The Global Blood Fund is a US and UK registered non-profit with a mission to improve the safety and availability of transfusion care in resource-poor communities worldwide.  Since 2008 it has provided equipment and training to build donor recruitment and collection capacity so that blood can save lives wherever and whenever it is needed.  Please visit for further details.

Terumo BCT, a global leader in blood component, therapeutic apheresis and cellular technologies, is the only company with the unique combination of apheresis collections, manual and automated whole blood processing and pathogen reduction technologies. We believe in the potential of blood to do even more for patients than it does today. This belief inspires our innovation and strengthens our collaboration with customers. Learn more at

Bob Grant